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Q. How are positive(+ve) and negative(-ve) numbers represented internally in Java?

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Negative numbers in Java are represented using 2's complement. As we know that integers in Java occupy 4 bytes so to understand how a negative integer (say -4) is represented internally in Java, we first need to find the binary equivalent of the positive value of the integer (in this case 4) and subsequently by finding the 2's complement of that binary representation. Okay, so how do find 2's complement of a binary number? Simply by adding '1' to the 1's complement of that number. But, how to find 1's complement of a binary number then? Just by reversing the bits of the number i.e., changing 1s to 0s and 0s to 1s. An example may of some help here. ... int i = -4; ... Step #1: Binary Equivalent of the positive value (4 in this case) 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100 Step #2: 1's complement of the binary rep of 4 by inverting the bits 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1011 Step #3: Finding 2's complement by adding 1 to the corresponding 1's complement 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1011 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 --------------------------------------- 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1100 Thus, we see that integer -4 is represented by the binary sequence (1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1100) in Java.
positive numbers are represented in binary using 1's complement, and negative numbers using 2's complement in Java.
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